Identification of Bacteria – set 05

Identification of Bacteria

Identification of Bacteria In order to isolate a microbe from a natural, mixed population of living microbes, as present in the environment, for example in water or soil flora, or from living beings with skin flora, oral flora or gut flora, one has to separate it from the mix.Identification of Bacteria

Traditionally microbes have been cultured in order to identify the microbe(s) of interest based on its growth characteristics. Depending on the expected density and viability of microbes present in a liquid sample, physical methods to increase the gradient as for example serial dilution or centrifugation may be chosen. In order to isolate organisms in materials with high microbial content, such as sewage, soil or stool, serial dilutions will increase the chance of separating a mixture.

In a liquid medium with few or no expected organisms, from an area that is normally sterile (such as CSF, blood inside the circulatory system) centrifugation, decanting the supernatant and using only the sediment will increase the chance to grow and isolate bacteria or the usually cell-associated viruses.

If one expects or looks for a particularly fastidious organism, the microbiological culture and isolation techniques will have to be geared towards that microbe. For example, a bacterium that dies when exposed to air, can only be isolated if the sample is carried and processed under airless or anaerobic conditions. A bacterium that dies when exposed to room temperature (thermophilic) requires a pre-warmed transport container, and a microbe that dries and dies when carried on a cotton swab will need a viral transport medium before it can be cultured successfully.

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Identification of Bacteria – set 04

Identification of Bacteria – set 04

Bacteria are made up of one cell, so they are a kind of unicellular organism. They are among the ... The Simple English Wiktionary has a definition for: bacteria

Identification of Bacteria -set 03

Identification of Bacteria SET 03

acteria are microscopic living organisms, usually one-celled, that can be found everywhere. ... In 1838, the German Naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg called them bacteria, from the Greek baktḗria, meaning "little stick."

Identification of Bacteria -set 02

Identification of Bacteria – SET 02

: a type of very small organism that lives in air, earth, water, plants, and animals, often one that causes disease:

Amazing Facts

Amazing Facts is a non-profit Seventh-day Adventist evangelistic ministry. based on the teachings of Scripture, and is a worldwide ministry based in Sacramento, California, which conducts seminars and streams by satellite, 24 hours a day, seven days a week on TV and satellite across North America and the world.

 1. The word “sneeze” came about through a misspelling of the original word “fneze” or “fnese.”

“Sneeze” is definitely a silly-sounding word. But it’s not quite as silly-sounding as “fneze” or “fnese,” which is how this bodily function was once spelled. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word “sneeze” originates from the Middle English word “fnese” and came about due to a “misreading or misprinting” of the original term. The dictionary writes that despite that, the word sneeze was “later adopted because it sounded appropriate.” 

 1. The word “sneeze” came about through a misspelling of the original word “fneze” or “fnese.”

After spending just two years at the Boston Latin School as well as a private academy while he was young, Benjamin Franklin left formal education behind to work at his family’s candle and soap-making business before becoming an apprentice at his brother’s printing shop. 

St. AndrHowever, Franklin continued his education independently by reading whatever books, essays, and articles he could get his hands on. His studious ways not only helped him become a revered writer, politician, and inventor, but also allowed him to earn honorary degrees from Harvard, Yale, Oxford, the College of William and Mary, and the University of ews. 


4. Whether or not you dream in black and white depends on whether you watched black-and-white television.

If your dreams look more vintage than HD, there’s a high chance you grew up watching black-and-white television. According to one 2008 study published in the journal Conscious Cognition, most people born after the year 1983 said they almost never dream in black and white, whereas people born in the year 1953 and earlier said they dream in black and white about a quarter of the time. Overall, 12 percent of people dream entirely in black and white, leading the researchers to suggest that “true greyscale dreams occur only in people with black and white media experience.” 

4.The word “unfriend” was first used in 1659

When you disconnect with someone on social media, you might say that you’ve “unfriended” them. The now-common word was even the New Oxford American Dictionary Word of the Year in 2009. But it turns out that “unfriend” is much older than you might expect. According to The Globe and Mail, the word “unbefriended” is cited several times in the Oxford English Dictionary beginning in 1629. But it wasn’t until 1659 that Thomas Fuller used the word as we know it today. In his book The Appeal of Injured Innocence, Fuller wrote, “I hope, sir, that we are not mutually Unfriended by this Difference which hath happened betwixt us.”

5. It’s against the law to die in the town of Longyearbyen, Norway.

According to IFL Science, “Even if you’ve lived [in Longyearbyen, Norway] all your life, if you are terminally ill, you will be flown off the island to live out the rest of your days. If you do happen to die suddenly in Longyearbyen, your body will be buried elsewhere.” 

That’s because, in 1950, it was discovered that bodies in the local cemetery in Longyearbyen were not decomposing as usual because there was so much permafrost in the area. That meant that viruses could survive in the human remains and eventually infect those living nearby when the ground thawed each year. 

Unique Facts About Unique Animal

Animals are amazing things; all of us are unique and sometimes very unusual in our behavior. At Frontier HQ, we are fascinated by all things nature, and so we have put together a list of all of the very best and most interesting and downright funny facts about animals we could find.

1. The heart of a shrimp is located in its head.

2. A snail can sleep for three years.

3. The fingerprints of a koala are so indistinguishable from humans that they have on occasion been confused at a crime scene.

4. Slugs have four noses.

5. Elephants are the only animal that can't jump.

6. A rhinoceros' horn is made of hair.

7. It is possible to hypnotize a frog by placing it on its back and gently stroking its stomach.

8. It takes a sloth two weeks to digest its food.

9. Nearly three percent of the ice in Antarctic glaciers is penguin urine.

10. A cow gives nearly 200,000 glasses of milk in a lifetime.

11. Bats always turn left when leaving a cave.

12. Giraffes have no vocal chords.

13. Kangaroos can't fart.

14. An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain.

15. Around 50 percent of orangutans have fractured bones, due to falling out of trees on a regular basis.

16. Frogs cannot vomit. If one absolutely has to, then it will vomit its entire stomach.

Cell Cultures and Characteristics -Section 2

Cell Cultures and Characteristics

Cell Cultures and Characteristics Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment. After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions. Cell Cultures and Characteristics conditions vary for each type, but generally consist of a suitable vessel with a substrate or medium that supplies the essential nutrients (amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals), growth factors, hormones, and gases (CO2O2), and regulates the physio-chemical environment (pH buffer,osmotic pressure, temperature). Most cells require a surface or an artificial substrate (adherent or monolayer culture) whereas others can be grown free floating in culture medium (suspension culture). The lifespan of most cells is genetically determined, but some cell culturing cells have been “transformed” into immortal cells which will reproduce indefinitely if the optimal conditions are provided.

Cell Cultures and Characteristics -Section 2

Cell Cultures and functions Section 1

Cell Cultures and functions Section 1

Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κύτος, kytos, “vessel”) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathwayslife cyclechemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to geneticsbiochemistrymolecular biologyimmunology and cytochemistry.[

Cell Cultures and functions- Section 1

a small room in which a prisoner is locked up or in which a monk or nun sleeps.
"the authorities locked all remaining inmates in their cells"


The politics of India takes place within the framework of the country’s constitution.INDIAN Political QUIZ India is a federal parliamentary democratic republic in which the President of India is the head of state and the Prime Minister of India is the head of government. India follows the dual polity system, i.e. a double government (federal in nature) that consists of the central authority at the centre and states at the periphery. The constitution defines the organisational powers and limitations of both central and state governments, and it is well recognised, rigid and considered supreme; i.e. the laws of the nation must conform to it.INDIAN Political QUIZ

There is a provision for a bicameral legislature consisting of an upper house, the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), which represents the states of the Indian federation, and a lower house, the Lok Sabha (House of the People), which represents the people of India as a whole. The Indian constitution provides for an independent judiciary, which is headed by the Supreme Court. The court’s mandate is to protect the constitution, to settle disputes between the central government and the states, to settle inter-state disputes, to nullify any central or state laws that go against the constitution and to protect the fundamental rights of citizens, issuing writs for their enforcement in cases of violation

Governments are formed through elections held every five years (unless otherwise specified), by parties that secure a majority of members in their respective lower houses (Lok Sabha in the central government and Vidhan Sabha in states). India had its first general election in 1951, which was won by the Indian National Congress, a political party that went on to dominate subsequent elections until 1977, when a non-Congress government was formed for the first time in independent India. The 1990s saw the end of single-party domination and the rise of coalition governments. The elections for the 16th Lok Sabha, held from April 2014 to May 2014, once again brought back single-party rule in the country, with the Bharatiya Janata Party being able to claim a majority in the Lok Sabha.[2]

In recent decades, Indian politics has become a dynastic affair.[3] Possible reasons for this could be the absence of party organisations, independent civil society associations that mobilise support for the parties and centralised financing of elections

Political GK QUIZ

Delhi Congress leaders demand replacement of AICC chief PC Chako over heavy losses in Lok Sabha elections. ... Prakash Ambedkar-led VBA split Opposition votes in Lok Sabha election, but vote share gives party hope ahead of Maharashtra Assembly polls. ... Bengal violence: Mamata Banerjee



An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a completely unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. Such works are novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field. An inventor may be taking a big step in success or failure.

Some inventions can be patented. A patent legally protects the intellectual property rights of the inventor and legally recognizes that a claimed invention is actually an invention. The rules and requirements for patenting an invention vary from country to country and the process of obtaining a patent is often expensive.

Another meaning of invention is cultural invention, which is an innovative set of useful social behaviours adopted by people and passed on to others. The Institute for Social Inventions collected many such ideas in magazines and books
Invention is also an important component of artistic and design creativity. Inventions often extend the boundaries of human knowledge, experience or capability.

invention QUIZ SET 02

An invention is a machine, device, or system that has been invented by someone. ... Invention is the ability to invent things or to have clever and original ideas.